Conference of April 14, 2022

in the United States Supreme Court

Conference of April 14, 2022

in the United States Supreme Court

Case Name Response on File Disposition Current Status Case Origin
Keith Smith v. City of Chicago, Illinois, et al., No. 21-700 Yes Decided Decided Seventh Circuit
City of New York, New York, et al. v. Jarrett Frost, No. 20-1788 Relisted Yes Denied Denied Second Circuit
Phillip W. Hurd, et al. v. Joy Laskar, No. 20-1351 Relisted Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Patsy K. Cope, et al. v. Leslie W. Cogdill, et al., No. 21-783 Yes Redistributed Denied Fifth Circuit
Coral Ridge Ministries Media, Inc., dba D. James Kennedy Ministries v. Southern Poverty Law Center, No. 21-802 Relisted Redistributed Denied Eleventh Circuit
Selina Marie Ramirez, et al. v. Jeremias Guadarrama, et al., No. 21-778 Relisted Yes Redistributed Denied Fifth Circuit
Kristopher Love v. Texas, No. 21-5050 Relisted Yes Denied Denied Texas
Andre Lee Thomas v. Bobby Lumpkin, Director, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Correctional Institutions Division, No. 21-444 Relisted Yes Redistributed Distributed Fifth Circuit
Terence Tramaine Andrus v. Texas, No. 21-6001 Relisted Yes Redistributed Denied Texas
Rodney Reed v. Bryan Goertz, No. 21-442 Relisted Yes Redistributed Certiorari Granted Fifth Circuit
Danny Lee Hill v. Tim Shoop, Warden, No. 21-6428 Relisted Yes Redistributed Denied Sixth Circuit
Feanyichi Ezekwesi Uvukansi v. Texas, No. 21-151 Relisted Redistributed Denied Texas
Tim Shoop, Warden v. August Cassano, No. 21-679 Relisted Yes Redistributed Denied Sixth Circuit
W. Clark Aposhian v. Merrick B. Garland, Attorney General, et al., No. 21-159 Relisted Yes Redistributed Distributed Tenth Circuit
David Roy Worthy v. Corizon Medical Group, et al., No. 21-7111 Denied Denied Sixth Circuit
Roberto Padilla Espinoza v. United States, No. 21-7430 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Damon Ramon Martinez v. United States, No. 21-7429 Denied Denied Tenth Circuit
Delbert Keyes v. Mississippi, No. 21-7423 Denied Rehearing Disposed Mississippi
Joshua Guity-Nunez v. United States, No. 21-7405 Denied Denied Third Circuit
Gregory M. Hawes v. Michael Pacheco, Warden, et al., No. 21-7414 Denied Denied Tenth Circuit
Jose Antonio Barahona-Paz v. United States, No. 21-7404 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
James Calvin Breeden v. United States, No. 21-7403 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Ricardo Rizo-Rizo v. United States, No. 21-7398 BIO Requested Distributed Ninth Circuit
Konstantinos Zografidis v. United States, No. 21-7395 Filing Fee Request Rehearing Disposed Second Circuit
Travis Ryan Skaggs v. United States, No. 21-7393 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Isaiah Ramon Henderson v. United States, No. 21-7391 Denied Denied Eighth Circuit
Choya Dwayne Hailey v. United States, No. 21-7390 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Henry E. Wood v. United States, No. 21-7387 Denied Denied Seventh Circuit
Sandchase Cody v. United States, No. 21-7386 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Adolfo Huerta v. United States, No. 21-7382 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Khalil Stafford v. United States, No. 21-7376 Denied Denied Third Circuit
Rodolfo Rodriguez, Jr. v. United States, No. 21-7375 Denied Denied Tenth Circuit
Dannie Simon Parker, Jr. v. United States, No. 21-7369 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Steven M. Chapman v. Warden, FCC Coleman - USP II, No. 21-7373 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Adam Shane Swindle v. <span></span><span></span>, No. 21-7367 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Raymond L. Rogers v. United States, No. 21-7366 Denied Rehearing Disposed Tenth Circuit
In re David Lopez, No. 21-7364 Denied Rehearing Disposed
Anthony Phillips v. United States, No. 21-7347 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Edward Pinchon v. Raymond Byrd, Warden, No. 21-7303 Denied Denied Sixth Circuit
Caleb L. McGillvary v. New Jersey, No. 21-7231 Denied Denied New Jersey
Timothy Donald Dingle v. Brian Kendall, Warden, No. 21-7228 Denied Fourth Circuit
Kwasi McKinney v. Arkansas, No. 21-7213 Denied Denied Arkansas
Remel Ahart v. Massachusetts, No. 21-7198 Denied Massachusetts
Precious Wiley v. Department of Veterans Affairs, et al., No. 21-7179 Denied Rehearing Disposed Eleventh Circuit
Corey J. Zinman v. Nova Southeastern University, et al., No. 21-7172 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
M. D. v. Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services, Child and Family Services Division, et al., No. 21-7167 Denied Rehearing Disposed Montana
Ngozika J. Nwaneri v. Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan, LLP, No. 21-7127 Denied Denied District of Columbia
Roy Franklin Echols, Jr. v. CSX Transportation, Inc., No. 21-7138 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Bobby Ray Jones v. Phillip Mitchell, Warden, et al., No. 21-7131 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Jabari J. Johnson v. DeFrancesco, et al., No. 21-7130 Denied Tenth Circuit
Quincy Deshan Butler v. Bobby Lumpkin, Director, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Correctional Institutions Division, No. 21-7126 Denied Rehearing Disposed Fifth Circuit
John J. Wilson, Jr. v. Florida, No. 21-7123 Dismissed Rehearing Disposed Florida
Thomas Warner v. Illinois, No. 21-7122 Denied Denied Illinois
Joseph Lamont Wilson v. Phoenix Police Department, et al., No. 21-7121 Denied Denied Ninth Circuit
Gerald Wayne Jako, Jr. v. West Virginia, No. 21-7113 Denied Denied West Virginia
Kevin Stephen Ryan v. Minnesota, No. 21-7108 Denied Denied Minnesota
Thomas G. Landreth v. United States, et al., No. 21-7098 Yes Filing Fee Request Denied Ninth Circuit
Edward T. James v. Florida, No. 21-7015 Yes Denied Denied Florida
Juan Jose Reynoso v. Bobby Lumpkin, Director, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Correctional Institutions Division, No. 21-6846 Yes Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Noe Flores-Perez v. United States, No. 21-6815 Denied Denied Sixth Circuit
Victor Dewayne Taylor v. Scott Jordan, Warden, No. 21-6747 Denied Denied Sixth Circuit
Jermaine Jackson v. United States, No. 21-6605 Redistributed Decided Second Circuit
Rafael Ramiro-Medina v. United States, No. 21-6348 Yes Denied Denied Ninth Circuit
Faruq Rose v. United States, No. 21-6186 Yes Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Zenon Grzegorczyk v. United States, No. 21-5967 Redistributed Denied Arizona
Michael L. Binday v. United States, No. 21-1241 Redistributed BIO Requested Second Circuit
Michael Broaden v. Department of Transportation, No. 21-1213 Denied Denied Federal Circuit
Sally Gaetjens v. City of Loves Park, Illinois, et al., No. 21-1199 Denied Denied Seventh Circuit
Michelle Manor, et vir v. Alejandro N. Mayorkas, Secretary of Homeland Security, et al., No. 21-1186 Denied Ninth Circuit
Terry Rene Chapman v. Social Security Administration, et al., No. 21-1167 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Roland Omar Gramajo-Reyes v. Merrick B. Garland, Attorney General, No. 21-1166 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Erika Bailey-Johnson v. United States, No. 21-1162 Denied Denied Federal Circuit
Rodric David v. Tony Kazal, et al., No. 21-1156 Denied Denied Ninth Circuit
SB Building Associates Limited Partnership v. Bunce Atkinson, et al., No. 21-1148 Denied Denied Third Circuit
Byron Wendell Phillips v. The Life Property Management Services, LLC, et al., No. 21-1137 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Wen-Ting Zheng-Smith v. Nassau Health Care Corporation, dba NUHealth System, et al., No. 21-1129 Denied Denied Second Circuit
William K. Harrington, United States Trustee, Region 2 v. Clinton Nurseries, Inc., et al., No. 21-1123 BIO Requested Distributed Second Circuit
Paul Francis v. John O. Desmond, United States Trustee, No. 21-1119 Denied Denied First Circuit
In re Wanda Bowling, No. 21-1115 Denied Denied
Matthew Liebovich, et al. v. Diane Janice Tobin, et al., No. 21-1116 Denied Denied California
Sonya Gorbea v. Verizon New York, Inc., No. 21-1112 Denied Denied Second Circuit
Raul A. Pelaez, as Limited Guardian of the Person and Property of John Poul Pelaez, Ward v. Government Employees Insurance Company, No. 21-1103 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Oklahoma v. Shaynna Lauren Sims, No. 21-1102 Redistributed Distributed Oklahoma
Vinod Kumar Dahiya v. Neptune Shipmanagement Services, PTE, Limited, et al., No. 21-1097 Yes Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Adam M. DeVore v. Kenneth Black, Warden, No. 21-7005 Relisted Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Ohio
Andrew J. Johnston v. United States, No. 21-6979 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Seventh Circuit
Republic of Turkey v. Lusik Usoyan, et al., No. 21-1013 Yes CVSG Distributed District of Columbia Circuit
Tracy Nix v. Advanced Urology Institute of Georgia, P.C., No. 21-1010 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Bryan P. Stirling, Director, South Carolina Department of Corrections, et al. v. Sammie Louis Stokes, No. 21-938 Redistributed Decided Fourth Circuit
Lana Weinbach v. The Boeing Company, et al., No. 21-934 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Eighth Circuit
Lawrence S. Brantley, Jr. v. Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, No. 21-6694 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Texas
Suran Wije v. United States, No. 21-6709 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Fifth Circuit
Klickitat County, Washington, et al. v. Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, No. 21-906 Yes Denied Denied Ninth Circuit
Blake Conyers, et al. v. City of Chicago, Illinois, No. 21-898 Denied Denied Seventh Circuit
Linda Shao v. McManis Faulkner, LLP, No. 21-881 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed California
Amy Bishop Anderson v. Deidra Wright, Warden, et al., No. 21-6588 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Eleventh Circuit
Louisiana v. David H. Brown, No. 21-871 Yes Denied Denied Louisiana
Hye-Young Park v. Board of Trustees for the University of Illinois, et al., No. 21-6498 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Seventh Circuit
Raymond H. Pierson, III v. Bruce S. Rogow, et al., No. 21-815 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Eleventh Circuit
Michael George Kogianes v. Edward Jensen, et al., No. 21-6470 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Ninth Circuit
Health and Hospital Corporation of Marion County, et al. v. Ivanka Talevski, Personal Representative of the Estate of Gorgi Talevski, Deceased, No. 21-806 Redistributed Certiorari Granted Seventh Circuit
In re James Joseph Knochel, No. 21-6444 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed
Apartment Association of Los Angeles County, Inc., dba Apartment Association of Greater Los Angeles v. City of Los Angeles, California, et al., No. 21-788 Yes Denied Denied Ninth Circuit
Laura Kelly, Governor of Kansas, et al. v. Animal Legal Defense Fund, et al., No. 21-760 Yes Redistributed Denied Tenth Circuit
Amgen Inc., et al. v. Sanofi, et al., No. 21-757 Yes CVSG Distributed Federal Circuit
Theresa Bailey v. New York Law School, et al., No. 21-7208 Denied Denied Second Circuit
Joshua B. Davoren v. Massachusetts, No. 21-7118 Denied Denied Massachusetts
Ian T. Cooke v. John R. Williams, et al., No. 21-7075 Denied Denied Connecticut
Makeda Haile v. Abdul Conteh, No. 21-7046 Denied Denied Virginia
N. R. v. Kansas, No. 21-6719 Yes Denied Denied Kansas
William Gregory Snow v. Illinois, No. 21-7427 Denied Denied Illinois
<span>Docketed:</span><span>March 21, 2022</span> v. West Virginia, No. 21-7418 Denied Denied West Virginia
Matthew Rausenberg v. Don Langford, Warden, No. 21-7415 Denied Denied Sixth Circuit
In re Eduardo Pineda, No. 21-7410 Denied Rehearing Disposed
Jory Russell Strizich v. Montana, No. 21-7409 Denied Denied Montana
John Peyton Alexander, II v. Mississippi, No. 21-7389 Dismissed Dismissed Mississippi
Juan M. Alcaraz v. Brian Williams, Warden, et al., No. 21-7385 Denied Denied Ninth Circuit
William A. Noguera v. Ronald Davis, Warden, No. 21-7374 Denied Denied Ninth Circuit
Aaron Abadi v. Department of Transportation, No. 21-7372 Denied Denied Second Circuit
Kyle Kurtz v. David W. Gray, Warden, No. 21-7362 Denied Sixth Circuit
Marc N. Greenberg v. United States, No. 21-7360 Denied Denied Sixth Circuit
Kaleb Gattis v. United States, No. 21-7359 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Joel Castro-Lopez v. United States, No. 21-7357 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Stacey Tremaine Johnson v. United States, No. 21-7356 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Jon Charles Vance v. United States, No. 21-7355 Denied Denied Sixth Circuit
Joseph Patrick Keel v. Florida, No. 21-7354 Denied Denied Florida
Alejandro Chavarria v. United States, No. 21-7353 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Pedro Intzin-Guzman v. United States, No. 21-7352 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Miguel Angel Cruz-Polanco, aka Luis Hernandez v. United States, No. 21-7351 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Charles Johnson, Jr. v. Kilolo Kijakazi, Acting Commissioner of Social Security, No. 21-7349 Denied Denied Sixth Circuit
Avian Brule v. United States, No. 21-7346 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
David Wayne Aring v. United States, No. 21-7345 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Edwin Calligan v. United States, No. 21-7344 Denied Denied Seventh Circuit
Harry Hueston v. United States, No. 21-7343 Denied Denied Second Circuit
Alejandro Salinas Garcia v. United States, No. 21-7342 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Jerry Fruit v. United States, No. 21-7341 Denied Denied Third Circuit
Joseph Louis Hall v. United States, No. 21-7340 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Robert Donald Gordon v. United States, No. 21-7339 Denied Denied Sixth Circuit
Gregory Todd Numann v. United States, No. 21-7334 Denied Denied Ninth Circuit
Andrew Michael Penny v. United States, No. 21-7333 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Marlon Sisnero-Gil v. United States, No. 21-7332 Denied Denied Second Circuit
Darregus T. Robinson v. United States, No. 21-7331 Denied Rehearing Disposed Eleventh Circuit
Japher Yosuf Rajab v. United States, No. 21-7330 Denied Denied Eighth Circuit
Devin Marques Carter v. Iowa, No. 21-7320 Denied Iowa
Chris Ward Kline v. Matthew C. Johns, Regional Administrator, Department of Health and Human Services, No. 21-7310 Denied Rehearing Disposed Ninth Circuit
Deon D. Colvin v. Howard University, No. 21-7308 Denied Denied District of Columbia
Sammie Carroll v. Maryland, No. 21-7280 Denied Denied Maryland
Calvin James v. John T. Wilcher, Sheriff, Chatham County, Georgia, No. 21-7278 Denied Denied Georgia
Victor L. Manns, Jr. v. Florida, No. 21-7265 Denied Rehearing Disposed Florida
Ezeani Gregory Ifesinachi v. Guy Cirillo, Warden, No. 21-7261 Denied Denied Third Circuit
Michael Ray Fortuna v. Robert Hudgins, Warden, et al., No. 21-7250 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Robert Carr, Jr. v. Wisconsin, No. 21-7240 Denied Denied Wisconsin
Robert Brewer v. New York, No. 21-7207 Denied Denied New York
Chuck Duckworth v. Illinois, No. 21-7206 Denied Denied Illinois
John L. Jacques v. Wisconsin, No. 21-7200 Denied Rehearing Disposed Wisconsin
Dennis Lee Shaffer v. Kansas, No. 21-7197 Denied Denied Kansas
Mainor Canales v. Tennessee, No. 21-7194 Denied Denied Tennessee
Brian Arthur Tate v. Lawrence J. Hogan, Jr., Governor of Maryland, et al., No. 21-7185 Denied Denied Maryland
Mustafa Ozsusamlar v. P. Adams, Warden, No. 21-7166 Denied Denied Fourth Circuit
Ilya Liviz v. Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, No. 21-7168 Dismissed Dismissed Massachusetts
Garland E. Williams v. United States, No. 21-7159 Denied Denied Federal Circuit
Robert Noel Smith v. Florida, No. 21-7114 Denied Denied Florida
Jamie Mills v. John Q. Hamm, Commissioner, Alabama Department of Corrections, No. 21-7109 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Jeffrey Ryan Simmermaker v. <span>Linked with 21A180</span><span></span>, No. 21-7104 Denied Denied Eighth Circuit
Alkiohn Dunkins v. Pennsylvania, No. 21-7100 Denied Denied Pennsylvania
Daniel Lee Reed v. Bobby Lumpkin, Director, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Correctional Institutions Division, No. 21-7096 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Zachary E. Coley v. Shaw Industries, Inc., No. 21-7091 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Trevin Nunnally, aka Rick v. United States, No. 21-6753 Redistributed Distributed Eleventh Circuit
Daniel A. Rodriguez v. United States, No. 21-6630 Yes Denied Rehearing Disposed Eleventh Circuit
Denis Adrian Aguilera Fernandez v. Merrick B. Garland, Attorney General, No. 21-6551 Yes Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Mark Stinson v. K. Cauley, et al., No. 21-6517 Redistributed Rehearing Disposed Eighth Circuit
Beijing Shougang Mining Investment Company, Ltd., et al. v. Mongolia, No. 21-1244 BIO Requested Denied Second Circuit
MRI Associates of Tampa, Inc. v. State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company, No. 21-1227 Denied Denied Florida
Michael Washington v. Florida Department of Transportation, No. 21-1226 Denied Denied Florida
Tracie Leach, et al. v. Mentor Worldwide, LLC, No. 21-1144 Denied Rehearing Disposed Ninth Circuit
Alice Guan v. Ellingsworth Residential Community Association, Inc., No. 21-1096 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Edwin Espejo v. Washington, No. 21-1091 Denied Denied Washington
Jesus Humberto Leon-Leon v. Merrick B. Garland, Attorney General, No. 21-817 Redistributed Denied Ninth Circuit
Ramon Rios, III v. Texas, No. 21-1190 BIO Requested Distributed Texas
Robert Mallory v. Norfolk Southern Railway Co., No. 21-1168 Yes Redistributed Certiorari Granted Pennsylvania
Rainey Muoka Mutua v. Merrick B. Garland, Attorney General, No. 21-1130 Denied Denied Eleventh Circuit
Taylor Arnett, et al. v. Kansas, No. 21-1126 BIO Requested Denied Kansas
Travis Boys v. Louisiana, No. 21-1110 Denied Denied Louisiana
John Davis v. City of Andrews, Texas, et al., No. 21-1104 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Jacques Jean Kabongo v. Michigan, No. 21-1094 Denied Denied Michigan
Jacky Scott Garrett v. Bobby Lumpkin, Director, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Correctional Institutions Division, No. 21-1080 Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Shipt, Inc. v. Jade Green, No. 21-1079 Redistributed Decided California
Office of the United States Trustee v. John Q. Hammons Fall 2006, LLC, et al., No. 21-1078 Redistributed Decided Tenth Circuit
Yacaira Reyes v. Westchester County Health Care Corporation, dba Westchester Medical Center, et al., No. 21-1077 Denied Denied Second Circuit
Stephen Lynch Murray v. Janelle Irwin Taylor, et al., No. 21-1071 Denied Denied Florida
Oklahoma v. Marquise Petey White, No. 21-1058 Yes Redistributed Decided Oklahoma
Juan Manuel Cruzado-Laureano v. W. Stephen Muldrow, No. 21-6910 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed First Circuit
Sandra Lee Bart v. United States, No. 21-6840 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Eighth Circuit
Carmela Rivero v. Fidelity Investments, Incorporated, No. 21-978 Yes Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
New York, et al. v. Janet L. Yellen, Secretary of the Treasury, et al., No. 21-966 Yes Denied Denied Second Circuit
Rio Grande Foundation v. City of Santa Fe, New Mexico, et al., No. 21-951 Denied Denied Tenth Circuit
Cooper Tire & Rubber Company v. Tyrance McCall, No. 21-926 Yes Redistributed Distributed Georgia
Gaspee Project, et al. v. Diane C. Mederos, et al., No. 21-890 Redistributed Denied First Circuit
Michigan v. Treshaun Lee Terrance, No. 21-870 Denied Denied Michigan
Ruben Orlando Benitez v. Mississippi, No. 21-6571 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Mississippi
Rachel Maniscalco, et al. v. New York City Department of Education, et al., No. 21-854 Denied Denied Second Circuit
Penobscot Nation v. Aaron M. Frey, Attorney General of Maine, et al., No. 21-838 Denied Denied First Circuit
Spire Missouri Inc., et al. v. Environmental Defense Fund, et al., No. 21-848 Denied Denied District of Columbia Circuit
United States v. Aaron M. Frey, Attorney General of Maine, et al., No. 21-840 Yes Denied Denied First Circuit
Marchand & Rossi, L.L.P., nka Marchand Law, L.L.P. v. Bryan K. White, et al., No. 21-796 Yes Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Gina Russomanno v. Dan Dugan, et al., No. 21-787 Yes Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Third Circuit
Jose Benito Guido v. Merrick B. Garland, Attorney General, No. 21-669 Yes Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Justin Paul Sulzner v. United States District Court for the Northern District of Iowa, No. 21-6172 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Eighth Circuit
Five Star Automatic Fire Protection, L.L.C. v. Department of Labor, No. 21-640 Yes Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Boyd & Associates v. Bryan K. White, et al., No. 21-626 Yes Denied Denied Fifth Circuit
Brenda M. Johnson v. Electronic Transaction Consultants, LLC, No. 21-5938 Rehearing Disposed Ninth Circuit
Chasmind David Miller v. Government Employees Insurance Company, et al., No. 21-5557 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Ninth Circuit
Wilma M. Pennington-Thurman v. Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, et al., No. 21-8 Rehearing Disposed Rehearing Disposed Eighth Circuit